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Three Major Groups of Ancient Israel
2nd Temple Period

516 BCE to 70 CE

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It may be a shock to the first-time reader of anything Jewish, but Judaism as we know it today is not what Ancient Israel looked like during the time of Yeshua (Jesus). Judaism today formed from the Rabbinic sibbling which formed from the merging of their Pharisaic sibbling along with a few other sibblings from the 1st centruy. Codification of the Babylonian Talmud occured in the 6th century and gradually, a new, non-priestly, non-hereditary class of community leaders, Torah teachers and interpreters emerged. The recovery of the destruction of the Temple in 70 and the Jewish wars against Rome was significant. They eventually gained leadership over most of the Jewish community and created a system of biblical interpretation that satisfied their convictions. The time, attention and dedication to the Torah is commendable not to mention a significant demonstration of resilliance.
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The Hellenistic era in Israel is divided into four historical phase:

The conquest of Palestine by Alexander
the Great and its aftermath (332-296 B.C.E.)

Ptolemaic rule (296-201 B.C.E.)
Seleucid rule (200-104 B.C.E.)
Hasmonean rule (104-64/3 B.C.E.)

Ancient Sibblings

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It's important to know that different kinds of Pharisees disagreed with each other. Open debate is encouraged. They didn't just disagree with their siblings. Search up Hillel and Shammai's discussions. Yeshua (Jesus) was hard on the ones that needed it. He did not go against the proper way of the Pharisees as it was taught to Him and according to His most excellent convictions. Jesus and Paul (Acts 23:6-9) were both Pharisees but were very aware of the Essene ways of knowing and doing. Yeshua (Jesus) stayed true to His roots and enjoyed the company of His Essene, Gentile and Pharisee followers.

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There is no fate, nothing  is pre-ordained, all events are a result of free will

Josephus Antiquities
13: 171-173

Some events are pre-ordained by God, others are a result of human free will

All events are predetermined and occur as God alone wills

Wars II: 162-165

Souls are not eternal, there is no Hades, no rewards, no punishments, no resurrection and no fate

Souls are eternal. Only the souls of good people undergo resurrection. the souls of evil men are punished for eternity

Messianics that followed the Dead Sea Scrolls (Hebrew-Septuagint (LXX),  non-canonical texts and community rules) as if the words themselves were their oxygen.

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Disagree with pharisaic traditions because they are not biblical. Not popular with majority, but only among the elites.

Many observances are based on passed-on traditions which are not in the Bible. Popular among the masses.

Devoted their life to serving God and shared all that they had so others would not suffer.

Sons of Light vs. Sons of Darkness

Josephus Antiquities

Regarding the Essenes, "All things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for...they are excluded from the common court of the temple...andy they entirely addict themselves to husbandry...addict themselves to virtue, and this in righteousness indeed to such a degree, that as it hath never appeared among any other man...institution of theirs which will not suffer anything to hinder them from having all things in common; so that a rich man enjoys no more of his own wealth thank he who hath nothing at all."

They based their beliefs on the New Covenant, the  priesthood of Melkizidek, they believed they would be the Bride of Christ and stayed pure.

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Replica of
Sun Dial/Solar Canendar
Found at Qumran

The year starts in Spring at the Equinox, then the 12 months with the seasons divided by a tekufah/solstice/equinox. 
It is a 360 day calendar with the four tekufah added in which makes it a 364 day calendar
Everything works out into even weeks.
You can find out much more about this calendar from an expert on the subject.

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Work in Progress

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