top of page

c. 5000 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Ubaidian culture dominant
throughout the territory
c. 3500 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Sumerians enter southern
c. 3300 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Development of cuneiform writing
in Sumeria
c. 3000–2686 B.C.E. Egypt: Archaic era—Dynasty 1 and 2
c. 2900 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Amorites settle to the north of
2686–2125 B.C.E. Egypt: Old Kingdom—Dynasty 3–8
2667–2648 B.C.E. Egypt: Djoser; career of Imhotep, later deified as
the god of medicine
2589–2566 B.C.E. Egypt: Khufu (Cheops)
2334–2279 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Sargon the Great of Akkad

c. 2200–1200 B.C.E. Middle and Late Bronze Ages
2160–2055 B.C.E. Egypt: First Intermediate Period—Dynasty 9–11
c. 2111 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Ur–Nammu establishes Third
Dynasty of Ur
2055–1650 B.C.E. Egypt: Middle Kingdom—Dynasty 11–14
1985–1956 B.C.E. Egypt: Amenemhat I
1956–1911 B.C.E. Egypt: Senusret I
1792–1750 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Hammurabi, first great king of
1650–1550 B.C.E. Egypt: Second Intermediate Period—Dynasty
1650–1550 B.C.E. Egypt: Hyksos—Dynasty 15
1595–1157 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Kassites rule Mesopotamia
1550–1069 B.C.E. Egypt: New Kingdom—Dynasty 18–20
c. 1365 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Assur–uballit I (1365–1330 BCE)
frees Assyria from Hurrian domination and
reestablishes it as an independent kingdom
1352–1336 B.C.E. Egypt: Amenhotep IV / Ankhenaten
1279–1213 B.C.E. Egypt: Ramesses II
1235 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Tukulti–Ninurta (1244–1208
B.C.E.) of Assyria conquers Babylon
c. 1200–800 B.C.E. Dark Age in the eastern Mediterranean;
incursions of the Sea Peoples into the Near East
1115–1077 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Tiglath–Pilester I, king of Assyria

1069–64 B.C.E. Egypt: Third Intermediate Period—Dynasty 21–25
c. 1020–1000 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Saul, king of Israel
c. 1000–961 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: David, king of Judah and Israel
c. 961–922 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Solomon, king of Judah and
922–587 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Separate kingdoms of Israel and
883–859 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Assurnasirpal II, king of Assyria
882–871 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Omri, king of Israel
c. 871–851 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Ahab, king of Israel
858–823 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria
c. 851–850 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Ahaziah, king of Israel
842–814 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Jehu, king of Israel
786–758 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Uzziah, king of Judah
785–749 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Jeroboam II, king of Israel
758–742 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Jotham, king of Judah
744–727 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Tiglath-Pileser III, king of Assyria
742–726 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Ahaz, king of Judah
740–732 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Rezin, king of Aram–Damascus
735–731 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Pekah, king of Israel
726–697 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Hezekiah, king of Judah

721–705 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Sargon II, king of Assyria
697–642 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Manasseh, king of Judah
669–627 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Assurbanipal, king of Assyria
664–332 B.C.E. Egypt: Late Period—Dynasty 26–30, Persian rule
604–562 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Nebuchadnezzar II, king of
556–539 B.C.E. Mesopotamia: Nabonidus (Nabu–na’id), king of
559–530 B.C.E. Persia: Cyrus II (“the Great”), king of Persia
486–465 B.C.E. Persia: Xerxes, king of Persia
336–323 B.C.E . Greece: Alexander III (“the Great”), king of
333–63 B.C.E. Hellenistic Era
332 B.C.E. Persia: Alexander conquers Persian possessions
in the Near East
305–285 B.C.E. Egypt: Ptolemy I Soter, first Hellenistic king of
175–163 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Antiochus IV Epiphanes, king
of Syria, 175–163 B.C.E.
167–142 B.C.E. Syria–Palestine: Maccabean revolt in Judah
165 B.C.E . Syria–Palestine: Restoration of Temple  Jerusalem
142–63 B.C.E . Syria–Palestine: Jewish autonomy under
Hasmonean rule

Gods in the Desert: Religions of the Ancient Near East by Glenn S. Holland, 2009

IDates Author
Before 2350 b.c.e. Anon. Egyptian Book
of the Dead (Reu Nu
Pert Em Hru [Chapters
of Coming Forth by
ca. 2300 b.c. e. Anon. Ā e Gilgamesh
Epic (Sumerian
ca. 2250 b.c. e. Hammurabi, King of
fl . ca. 1500 b.c. e. Vyāsa (Krishna
Dvaipāyana, Vedavyā)
ca. 1300 b.c.e. Ā e Gilgamesh Epic
(Akkadian Language)
fl . ca. 1250 b.c. e. Orpheus
fl . eighth Homer
century b.c.e. Hesiod
fl . seventh Alkman
century b.c.e. Th aletas of Crete
fl . ca. 684 b.c. e Callinus of Ephesus
fl . ca. 680 b.c. e. Archilochos
b. ca. 650 b.c. e. Sappho (Psappho)
fl . ca. 647 b.c. e. Tyrtaeus
ca. 630–ca. 580 b.c. e. Alcaeus (Alkaios)
ca. 630–ca. 553 b.c.e. Zoroaster (Zarathustra Spitama).

fl . sixth century b.c. e. Aesop
the Sicyonian
Musæus 1
Th espis of Ikaria
ca. mid- sixth century Th eognis
fl . ca. 594 b.c. e. Solon
fl . ca. 590 b.c. e. Mimnermus of
ca. 563–ca 483 b.c. e. Buddha
ca. 556–468 b.c. e. Simonides of Ceos
551–479 b.c.e. Confucius
fl . ca. 550–500 b.c. e. Pythagoras of Samos
fl . ca. 536 b.c. e. Anacreon
525–455 b.c.e. Aeschylus
ca. 518–ca. 438 b.c. e. Pindar
512–476 b.c. e. Phrynicos of Athens
fl . 500 b.c. e. Hanno
Hecatæus of Miletus
Heraclitus of Ephesus
fl . ca. late sixth Epicharmus of Cos
or early Ā ft h (Epicharmus of Sicily)
century b.c.e
ca. Ā ft h century b.c.e. Myrtis

Indus Valley Civilization.jpg
The Indus Valley Civilization

Hinduism - originated from ancient Vedic culture which was brought to India by Aryans tribes who migrated to northwest which included Punjab and Afghanistan. The lack of archaeological evidence speaks to the early Vedic people being nomadic pastoralists. 

  • Aryans - No cast system, comprised of family clan tribes called Janas. The chief of the tribe was called Raja with popular assemblies (all members of the Janas) were called Sabhas and Samitis who had sway over public affairs. Although they were polytheistic (acknowledged and worshiped many deities). Indra was the most important heroic god who was a mighty warrior and controlled the weather and the supreme deva (god) of the Rigveda scripture. The Aryans worshiped different forces of nature like the sun, sky, earth, wind, rain and fire as gods and goddesses.

  • Dravidians - inhabit parts of Central but mainly South Asia with debated Iranian plateau (possibly Elamite) origins, descended from old Western Eurasians

  • Brahmana - late Vedic period when settlers in northern India were already divided into four social classes. Brahmans (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (traders) and Shudra (labourers)

Sacred texts: Rig Veda (early period)

The timeline of the Vedic culture is debated and ranges between 3000 - 1700bce. Nonetheless, the thought and culture have continued in India over the last 3,500 years and ranks among the three largest global religions.

Since 1975, the Biblical Archaeology Society has produced copious amounts of information on the ancient Middle and Near East
The Acropolis of Athens, Greece, with the Parthenon Temple on top of the hill during a sum

The Ancient Egyptians had a deep conviction of an underlying holiness and unity within the universe. Cosmic harmony was achieved by correct public and ritual life. Any disturbance in cosmic harmony could have consequences for the individual as well as the state. An impious King could bring about famine or blasphemy blindness to an individual.[8] The opposite of the right order expressed in the principle of Maat is "Isfet": chaos, lies and violence.[9]

To the Egyptian mind, Ma'at bound all things together in an indestructible unity: the universe, the natural world, the state, and the individual were all seen as parts of the wider order generated by Ma'at.

During the Greek period in Egyptian history, Greek law existed alongside Egyptian law. The Egyptian law preserved the rights of women who were allowed to act independently of men and own substantial personal property and in time this influenced the more restrictive conventions of the Greeks and Romans.[14] When the Romans took control of Egypt, the Roman legal system which existed throughout the Roman empire was imposed in Egypt.

Roman legal system which existed throughout the Roman empire was imposed in Egypt.

Maat and scribes

Scribes held prestigious positions in Ancient Egyptian society in view of their importance in the transmission of religious, political and commercial information.[15]

Thoth was the patron of scribes who is described as the one "who reveals Maat and reckons Maat. Who loves Maat and gives Maat to the doer of Maat".[16]

bottom of page